On 3 August, he was standing near one of these cannons, known as "the Lion", when it exploded and killed him. In the latter campaign he was killed during a siege of Roxburgh Castle. Three days later Malcolm Fleming of Cumbernauld, their chief adherent, shared the same fate. Scottish Monarch. Having no legitimate children, Charles was succeeded by his brother James, who reigned in England and Ireland as James II, and in Scotland as James VII. However, they were treacherously hurried to their doom, which took place by beheading in the castle yard of Edinburgh on 24 November, with the 10-year-old king pleading for their lives. Father: James I, King of Scotland. The revenues from these lands enabled him to set up a strong central government and make improvements in the administration of justice. Henry would not accept this condition and mobilised his army against Scotland. James attempted to seize Douglas lands, but his opponents repeatedly forced him into humiliating climbdowns, whereby he returned the lands to James Douglas, 9th earl of Douglas, and a brief and uneasy peace ensued. He was Crowned on May 2 or 21, 1424. James II (16 October 1430 – 3 August 1460) was King of Scotland from 1437 until his death. Military campaigns ended indecisively, and some have argued that James stood in serious danger of being overthrown, or of having to flee the country. James was with his ar… The king travelled the country and has been argued to have originated the practice of raising money by giving remissions for serious crimes. This murder did not end the power of the Douglases, but rather created a state of intermittent civil war between 1452 and 1455. He was popular with the commoners, with whom, like most of the Stewarts, he socialised often, in times of peace and war. [2] James's nickname, Fiery Face, referred to a conspicuous vermilion birthmark on his face which appears to have been deemed by contemporaries an outward sign of a fiery temper. James became king in 1437 after the murder of his father. They had seven children: An unnamed son. A single member of the family escaped the general proscription—James, the eldest son of Sir Alexander, who, after arrest and escape to the highlands, was restored in 1454 to the office of chamberlain to which he had been appointed in the summer of 1449. He acceded to the English throne upon the death of the heirless Queen Elizabeth I in 1603. In February 1452 he stabbed the earl to death. Timeline for King James II of Scotland (1437 - 1460) English Monarch at the time. [3], James was a politic, and singularly successful king. They were released on 4 September only by making a formal agreement to put James in the custody of the Livingstons, by giving up her dowry for his maintenance, and confessing that Livingston had acted through zeal for the king's safety. Called Fiery Face because of a red birthmark on his face, he was the son of James I and Joan Beaufort, and was crowned on March 25, 1437 at Holyrood Abbey, breaking the longstanding tradition of rulers crowned at Scone. It has also been argued that some of the unpopular policies of James III originated in the late 1450s. He had an elder twin, Alexander Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, who lived long enough to receive a knighthood, but died in infancy. At a parliament in Edinburgh on 19 January 1450, Alexander Livingston, a son of Sir Alexander, and Robert Livingston of Linlithgow were tried and executed on the Castle Hill. According to its account, the king accused the Earl (probably with justification) of forging links with John Macdonald, 11th earl of Ross (also Lord of the Isles), and Alexander Lindsay, 4th earl of Crawford. Taking advantage of these events, Livingston placed Queen Joan and her new husband, Sir John Stewart, under "house arrest" at Stirling Castle on 3 August 1439. James grew up in Dunfermline Abbey and spent most of his early childhood under his mother’s care until her death in 1401 when he was just seven. The Parliament of Scotland revoked alienations of crown property and prohibited them, without the consent of the Estates, that is, until James II's eighteenth birthday. Between 1451 and 1455 he struggled to free himself from the power of the Douglases. Along with the forfeiture of the Albany Stewarts in the reign of James I, the destruction of the Black Douglases saw royal power in Scotland take a major step forward. But James's patronage of lands, titles and office to allies of the Douglases saw their erstwhile allies begin to change sides, most importantly the earl of Crawford after the Battle of Brechin, and in May 1455 James struck a decisive blow against the Douglases, and they were finally defeated at the Battle of Arkinholm. That revolution, engendered by James’s Roman Catholicism, permanently established Parliament as the ruling power in England. Trevor, Meriol. However, his murder of the earl of Douglas leaves a stain on his reign. Some of his citizens did not like his religious ideas, leading a group of them to disobey and fight against him. Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie stated in his history of James's reign that "as the King stood near a piece of artillery, his thigh bone was dug in two with a piece of misframed gun that brake in shooting, by which he was stricken to the ground and died hastily."[14]. James II, (born Oct. 16, 1430, Edinburgh, Scot.—died Aug. 3, 1460, Roxburgh Castle, Roxburgh), king of Scots from 1437 to 1460. The new Parliamentt… During the 13 years (1424–37) in which he had control of the government, he established the first strong monarchy the Scots had known in nearly a century. On 21 February 1437, James I was assassinated and the six-year-old James immediately succeeded him as James II. The main engagements were at Brodick, on the Isle of Arran; Inverkip in Renfrew; and the Battle of Arkinholm. The queen, although hurt, managed to get to her six-year-old son, who was now king. The son of James I, he became known as 'James of the fiery face' due to a birth mark. Some of his citizens did not like his religious ideas, leading a group of them to disobey and fight against him. A French chronicler, Mathieu d'Escouchy, gives a graphic account of the ceremony and the feasts which followed. The main account of Douglas's murder comes from the Auchinleck Chronicle, a near contemporary but fragmentary source. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Name: King James II of Scotland. The Shadow of a Crown: The Life Story of James II of England and VII of Scotland. Subsequently, the relations between Flanders and Scotland improved. The early life of James was dominated by the English Civil War and for James years in exile. Douglas and Crichton continued to dominate political power, and the king continued to struggle to throw off their rule. The only surviving son of King James I, he succeeded to the throne at the age of six upon his father’s assassination (February 1437). [2], James II enthusiastically promoted modern artillery, which he used with some success against the Black Douglases. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. James II was the king of Scotland from 1437 to 1460. James II enthusiastically promoted modern artillery, which he used with some success against the Black Douglases. There are separate guides to each of the registers which you can access at the links below. After his death, and with a general lack of high-status earls in Scotland due to deaths, forfeiture or youth, political power became shared uneasily among William Crichton, 1st Lord Crichton, Lord Chancellor of Scotland (sometimes in co-operation with the Earl of Avondale), and Sir Alexander Livingston of Callendar, who had possession of the young king as the warden of the stronghold of Stirling Castle. Prior to becoming king he held the title Duke of Rothesay. [2], In Scotland the king's marriage led to his emancipation from tutelage, and to the downfall of the Livingstons. 2 My brothers and sisters, believers in our glorious Lord Jesus Christ must not show favoritism. Because he was too young to take control of the government, the strong central authority that his father had established quickly collapsed. When Douglas refused to break the bond with Ross, James broke into a fit of temper and stabbed Douglas 26 times and threw his body out of a window. James III Stewart of Scotland was born circa1451 in Scotland, United Kingdom to James II of Scotland (1430-1460) and Mary of Guelders (c1434-1463) and died 11 June 1488 at theBattle of Sauchieburn of unspecified causes. James I was assassinated on 21 February 1437. His court officials (many of whom would rise to great influence in later years, often in former Douglas lands) then joined in the bloodbath, one allegedly striking out the earl's brain with an axe. [1] He was the son of King James I and Joan Beaufort. James was born on October 14th 1633. He attacked English outposts in Scotland in 1456 and 1460. Hove, East Sussex: Wayland, 1977. James finally assumed his royal duties upon his marriage to Mary of Gueldres in 1449. The Imperial ambassador in London, Eustace Chapuys, wrote on 2 October that the Scottish ambassadors ruled out a conciliatory meeting between James and Henry VIII in England until the pregnant Mary of Guise delivered her child. Ascended to the throne: February 21, 1437 aged 6 years. Born: Oct 16, 1430 at Holyrood. The youngest of three sons, he was born in Dunfermline Abbey to King Robert III and his wife Annabella Drummond.His older brother David, Duke of Rothesay, died under suspicious circumstances while being detained by their uncle, Robert, Duke of Albany.His other brother, Robert, died young. [citation needed]. James II, King of Scots 1437 – 1460. James’s ensuing reign was a controversial one, in part because of many political decisions that Parliament and the public found vexing: he spent lavishly, summoned Parliament only once between … In 1449, he married Mary of Guelders, daughter of the Duke of Gelderland and together they had seven children. He was deposed in the Glorious Revolution (1688–89) and replaced by William III and Mary II. James finally had the freedom to govern as he wished, and one can argue that his successors as kings of Scots never faced such a powerful challenge to their authority again. James II, King of Scotland was born 16 October 1430 in Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom to James I of Scotland (1394-1437) and Joan Beaufort (c1406-1445) and died 3 August 1460 in Roxburgh Castle, Scotland, United Kingdom of unspecified causes. While cultivating alliances abroad and negotiating with both the Yorkists and the Lancastrians during the Wars of the Roses, James assaulted Berwick in 1455, mounted a sally into Northumberland in 1456, raided the English-held Isle of Man and attacked Berwick again in 1457. James married Mary of Guelders at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh, on 3 July 1449. James´s son became king as James III and Mary acted as regent until her own death three years later. James II of England/VII of Scotland (14 October 1633-16 September 1701) became King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. (Born and died on 19 May 1450) James III of Scotland (10 July 1451 – 11 June 1488) According to legend, they came, and were entertained at the royal table, where James, still a little boy, was charmed by them. Updates? James was killed at a siege of Roxburgh Castle, August 1460, when a cannon he lit exploded. James was their second son, the older being the future Charles II. [4] He possessed much of his father's restless energy. In the ensuing turmoil three rival families—the Crichtons, the Livingstons, and the Douglases—fought to gain control of the young king. Robert Lindsay of Pitscottiestated i… [1] She bore him seven children, six of whom survived into adulthood. [11], In 1458 an Act of Parliament commanded the king to modify his behaviour, but one cannot say how his reign would have developed had he lived longer. On 25 March 1437, the six-year-old was formally crowned King of Scots at Holyrood Abbey.The Parliament of Scotland revoked alienations of crown property and prohibited them, without the consent of the Estates, that is, until James II's eighteenth birthday. The majority of Scottish birth, death and marriage records are held in the custody of the Registrar General for Scotland at New Register House in Edinburgh. James was the third son of King James IV of Scotland and his wife Margaret Tudor, a daughter of Henry VII of England and sister of Henry VIII, and was the only legitimate child of James IV to survive infancy.He was born on 10 April 1512 at Linlithgow Palace, Linlithgowshire, and baptized the following day, receiving the titles Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. His ambitions to increase Scotland's standing saw him besiege Roxburgh Castle in 1460, one of the last Scottish castles still held by the English after the Wars of Independence. [8][9][10], Between 1455 and 1460 James II proved to be an active and interventionist king. Favoritism Forbidden. [citation needed], For this siege, James took a large number of cannons imported from Flanders. James II, King of Scots was born on October 16, 1430, at Holyrood Abbey in Edinburgh, Scotland. He immediately seized the Livingston estates, but he maintained an uneasy peace with the powerful Douglas family until 1450, when he quarreled with William, 8th Earl of Douglas. They include:[16], Colvin and Brown (1963), p. 819; Salter (1985), p. 17, John Stewart, 1st Earl of Mar and Garioch, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Scottish Monarchs – Kings and Queens of Scotland – James II", "Project Gutenberg's Two Penniless Princesses, by Charlotte M. Yonge", Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=James_II_of_Scotland&oldid=1004234154, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles needing additional references from August 2020, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, John Stewart, Lord of Sticks (d. 21 September 1523), Appears as a background character in the children's fantasy novel, Charles James, Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay, This page was last edited on 1 February 2021, at 17:36. The only surviving son of King James I, he succeeded to the throne at the age of six upon his father’s assassination (February 1437). [7], From 1437 to 1439 the king's first cousin Archibald Douglas, 5th earl of Douglas, headed the government as lieutenant-general of the realm. the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1625 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625; he was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and he succeeded Elizabeth I; he alienated the British Parliament … [5], James I was assassinated on 21 February 1437. James I belongs to the Royal House Stewart. James wanted to proceed quickly to the coronation, and was crowned with his wife at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1685. James was born in Holyrood Abbey. While abroad, James fought with both the French and Spanish armies. He was succeeded by his son, al… Omissions? James II: A Study in Kingship. His temper was also fiery. The descendants of James II of England, Stuart monarch of the Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Scotland and Kingdom of Ireland, are numerous.His last descendant in the legitimate line, Henry Benedict Stuart, died in 1807, but there are descendants in illegitimate lines to this day. [1], On 3 July 1449, the eighteen-year-old James married the fifteen-year-old Mary of Guelders, daughter of the Duke of Gelderland, at Holyrood Abbey. Three years later James demolished the Douglas castles and confiscated their vast estates. James I (December 10, 1394 – February 21, 1437) was nominal King of Scots from April 4, 1406, and reigning King of Scots from May 1424 until February 21, 1437. James I of Scotland was the king of Scotland from 1406 to 1437. He ascended to the throne at the tender age of 6, after the murder of his father. Corrections? A generally favourable work by a professional biographer. He does not appear to have inherited his father's taste for literature, which was shared by at least two of his sisters; but the foundation of the University of Glasgow during his reign, by Bishop Turnbull, shows that he encouraged learning; and there are also traces of his endowments to St. Salvator's, the new college of Archbishop Kennedy at St Andrews.